Knowing Hazard Risk Assessment better - GRM Institute

Knowing Hazard Risk Assessment better


What is it actually?

Hazard Risk Assessment (HRA) could also be a process of defining and describing hazards by characterizing their probability, frequency, and severity and evaluating adverse consequences, including potential losses and injuries. We think the identification of hazards plays the most important role in this scenario. Then through risk assessment which proposes a strategy to reduce losses from identified hazards. The goal of hazard identification is to identify as many hazards as possible that is applicable to the operation, within the scope of risk assessment.

For example, in Airport management any of the hazard identification techniques will lead to the identification of each and every hazard involved with an airport project, a proposed change, or even accidents and incidents.

The most common techniques used by airports are brainstorming, checklists, safety performance indicators, Hazard, incident and inspection reports, structured what-if (SWIFT), safety audits.

Brainstorming is the typical SRA (safety risk assessment) technique used to identify hazards by airports suggest that a group of four to six people is ideal for brainstorming.

There are two basic rules for hazard identification in brainstorming sessions:

  1. Identify as many hazards as possible, and
  2. Criticism and analysis are forbidden during the session.

Check Lists of common hazards have been developed from past projects and people experienced with the type of project and give assurance that the most obvious hazards will not be missed.

Safety Performance Indicator (SPI) is any measurable parameter that tells how well any activity associated with safety is performing over time. Data on SPIs are monitored and trends are evaluated to spot the necessity for risk control actions.

Accident and incident investigation reports contain information on hazards, incidents, and accidents and are effective sources for the identification of hazards.

Structured What-if (SWIFT), this hazard identification technique involves a multidisciplinary panel of experts chaired by a facilitator; however, different from brainstorming. The facilitator prepares a list of questions to ask the panel such as: What if? Could someone? Has anyone ever?

Safety audits are routinely used for safety assurance, to assess compliance with regulatory and internal requirements, and to evaluate the effectiveness of a system, process, or procedure.

Airports in Europe and Asia have been using a well-known risk assessment model called “bow-tie.”

The bow-tie diagram presents the hazard (e.g., airfield construction), the undesirable event (e.g., runway incursion), the safety events, or threats (e.g., construction workers near movement areas) and potential outcomes (e.g., aircraft running over construction worker).

In addition, two categories of risk controls are illustrated. There are proactive or preventive controls called barriers (e.g., safety awareness training to construction workers), in most cases intended to reduce the probability of the undesirable event occurring. There are mitigation controls (e.g., emergency response plan) intended to reduce the severity of the outcome upon the occurrence of the undesirable event.

The purpose of the risk assessment meeting is to understand the impacts to operations and identify the hazards associated with the safety issue discussed, infer potential outcomes and levels of risks associated with the hazards, and deliberate on the mitigation actions to balance the security outcome and resource constraints.

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